WELCOME!

AVS  Rocky Mountain Chapter

Established 1967

Chair Andrew Cavanagh, University of Colorado Boulder

2019 Sponsors

Thank you!

2018 Student Poster Winners

Congratulations to our 2018 Student Poster prize winners:  Carmen A. Velasco, Cherie DeVore and Sarah Zaccarine

 

J.R. Gaines

Vacuum Tutorials: Introduction to Vacuum Technologies & Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition and Thin Film Growth Models

 

Brian Berland

Ultra-Thin, Solid-State Batteries for Flexible Electronics

 

Robert K Grubbs

Modern Concepts in Computer Memory and Storage Operation

 

Ellen R. Fisher

Plasmas and Thin Films:  Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick

Alexandra E. Curtin

From Films to Flight: test and calibration of optics and instruments for space applications

Bryce Anton

Industrial Thin Film Applications: Decorative and Tribological Coatings

 

Joseph Berry

Perovskite Solar Cells

 

Tommi Kääriäinen

Atomic Layer Deposition for 3D Optical Coatings

 

Daniel Higgs

Tons per day Production of ALD-Coated Powders for Batteries and other Markets

How Low Can You Go?

2019 Annual Symposium of the Rocky Mountain Chapter

Program
7:45 Registration begins
8:30–11:30 Oral Sessions
10:00 Vendor Exhibit opens
11:30–1:30 Free Lunch in the Exhibit Area
1:30–3:30 Oral Session
3:30 Poster Session opens
3:30–6:00 Social time – Vendor Exhibit and Student Poster Session
8:30AM - 12PM Introduction to Vacuum Technology J.R. Gaines (Lesker)

This class is designed to introduce the student to basic concepts in vacuum technology.  Subjects covered include molecular density in vacuum, the ideal gas law, molecular flow in various vacuum regimes, characteristics of gas composition at various molecular densities, general principles of gas-solid interactions, vacuum pump technology and the impact of fundamental design decisions and operating practices on vacuum system performance. 

It is intended for people who are new to vacuum or may not have any formal training.  It also provides a general review for those who have had some formal training in vacuum technology. The student should achieve a general understanding of vacuum technology as a foundation for further training in vacuum system design and thin film deposition.  This course also includes several short quizzes to better enable the learning process.  Students who attend the class can receive a personalized certificate of attendance signed by the course instructor.  Specific topics include:

  1. Technical resources for vacuum technology
  2. Pressure and molecular density
  3. Adsorption, Desorption, Diffusion and Permeation
  4. Gas–Solid Interactions
  5. Flow Regimes
  6. Conductance
  7. Vacuum Pump Technologies, Pumping Speed and Pump Throughput
  8. Detecting leaks in vacuum systems
  9. Valves and Seals for high and ultra-high vacuum
  10. Gas Load
  11. Effects of humidity on vacuum system performance
  12. Outgassing
  13. Surface finishes for vacuum applications
  14. Calculations of ultimate base pressure of a vacuum system

J.R. Gaines is the Technical Director of Education for the Kurt J. Lesker.   Gaines has more than 40 years of experience in the research, development and commercialization of advanced materials technologies including superconductivity, semiconductors, cryogenics, space simulation, energy generation, energy conversion and storage.  His experience includes vacuum systems, thin film deposition, inorganic chemistry, nanotechnology and advanced ceramic processing. He currently develops and delivers the Company’s many educational programs through Lesker University teaching events.

1:30PM - 4PM Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition and Thin Film Growth Models J.R. Gaines (Lesker)

 

Introduction to fundamental concepts and operating principles for the deposition of thin films by thermal and e-beam evaporation as well as several sputtering techniques. It includes the description of the fundamental design and operational aspects of each thin film deposition technique as it impacts thin film properties. Issues such as deposition rate, film uniformity, morphology and density are discussed.

Several models for thin film growth (layer, island and combined) are presented with reference to how specific materials properties and deposition conditions may affect thin film characteristics. The student should achieve a general understanding of thin film deposition by physical vapor techniques and be familiarized with available resources for further training.

Specific topics covered include:

  1. Thermal evaporation
  2. E-beam evaporation
  3. Sputtering by Direct Current (DC) Magnetron
  4. Sputtering by Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron
  5. Sputtering using pulsed processes – i.e. HiPIMs
  6. Ion beam sputtering
  7. Cathodic Arc Deposition
  8. Combinatorial Magnetron Sputtering
  9. Glancing Angle Deposition
  10. Atomic layer deposition
  11. Stress in thin films
  12. Thickness effects
  13. Effect of Chamber Pressure on film properties
  14. Deposition rate and film characteristics
  15. Particulate formation
  16. Sputtering from single crystals

J.R. Gaines is the Technical Director of Education for the Kurt J. Lesker.   Gaines has more than 40 years of experience in the research, development and commercialization of advanced materials technologies including superconductivity, semiconductors, cryogenics, space simulation, energy generation, energy conversion and storage.  His experience includes vacuum systems, thin film deposition, inorganic chemistry, nanotechnology and advanced ceramic processing. He currently develops and delivers the Company’s many educational programs through Lesker University teaching events.

8:30 - 9:00 Tommi Kääriäinen - Atomic Layer Deposition for 3D Optical Coatings

Atomic Layer Deposition for 3D Optical Coatings

Tommi Kääriäinen, Kalle Niiranen, Kari Harkonen, Paula Paivike and Sami Sneck Beneq, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition method based on self-saturating surface reactions. The self-limiting nature of the thin film growth enables extremely conformal deposition, which has enabled multiple major advances in semiconductor applications. Equally, this inherent conformality can also be applied for optical applications where micro- and/or macro conformality is necessary. Traditionally, ALD has been viewed as a time-consuming deposition method when compared to some industrial thin film optical coating methods. However, using large batch sizes for the coating of multiple optical components from all sides simultaneously enables a competitive throughput. In this work, we present the case for the use of ALD for coating demanding optical coatings via application examples. These coatings can be applied for curved surfaces in large batches over a single processing run.

 
 
9:00 - 9:30 Alexandra E. Curtin, From Films to Flight: test and calibration of optics and instruments for space applications

From Films to Flight: test and calibration of optics and instruments for space applications

Alexandra E. Curtin, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 USA

The Laboratory for Atmosphere and Space Physics (LASP) has built instruments and spacecraft for solar, atmospheric, and space science dating back to the 1940s. Over the last seven decades we have worked on everything from the Voyager missions to student CubeSat projects. The Test and Calibration group is responsible for environmental testing of everything from individual optics to fully integrated instruments and satellites. Recent projects have required the calibration of UV spectrometers and cameras for atmospheric science on Earth and orbiting Mars. Our work starts with characterization of filters, mirrors, and lenses, optics coated with thin and thick films that are subjected to wide temperature ranges in the vacuum of space. Final instrument performance is dependent on everything from optical coating materials science to mechanical tolerances in the instrument construction. To deliver an instrument that will function in the environment of space, we must understand how the performance of each optical component and the optical path as a whole affects our science data. We use homegrown environmental test chambers and vacuum chambers fitted with multiple illumination sources to and beam paths to emulate imaging modes required by each instrument. Along the way we touch on thin film quality, multi-channel plate detector design, and finally, thermal vacuum testing of the instrument (or satellite) under flight conditions.

9:30 - 10:00 Bryce Anton - Industrial Thin Film Applications: Decorative and Tribological Coatings

Industrial Thin Film Applications: Decorative and Tribological Coatings

Bryce Anton, Director of Technology,  . 6400 Dry Creek Pkwy, Longmont, CO 80503

Abstract: Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) and Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) process are routinely used for providing attractive, durable finishes for a wide variety of consumer products.  The same types of deposition systems and resulting coatings are also used for providing enhanced wear and impact resistant coatings in extreme environments such as high-performance engines and metal cutting/forming tools.  This talk will provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges that an industrial equipment manufacturer faces in this ever-growing field and ways in which they are addressed.  In particular, the increasing role that versatile Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) films play in both Decorative and Functional coating applications will be presented.

10-10:30 Break
10:30 - 11:00 Ellen R. Fisher - Plasmas and Thin Films:  Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick

Plasmas and Thin Films:  Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick

Ellen R. Fisher, Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1872

Plasma processing represents a powerful approach to modification of a range of substrates utilizing an array of chemistries and morphologies – a “big stick” in the world of thin films.  New applications for plasma deposited thin films continue to be developed and they are employed in a vast array of industries to produce high impact, high value products.  One strategy for increasing the robustness of plasma surface modification and deposition processes lies in increasing our understanding of the fundamental chemistry of the gas phase chemistry in plasmas, the resulting film chemistry and perhaps most importantly, the gas-surface interface.  This talk will focus on recent work in our laboratory that explores not only the impact of the plasma on the surface, but also the effect of the substrate on the plasma chemistry.  Data on systems used for plasma assisted catalysis (PAC), deposition of antimicrobial films as well as hydrophobic fluorocarbon polymers, and plasma production of low D carbon materials will be presented.  As one example, we have combined a range of spectroscopy techniques, materials characterization tools, and plasma-surface interface studies to reveal that the presence of a catalytic substrate in the plasma system results in significant changes in the plasma chemistry, most notably affecting the internal temperatures (vibrational, rotational) of various plasma species.  Changes in plasma composition as well as substrate surface chemistry and morphology were also observed.  Connections between these results and other trends we observe at the plasma-surface interface will be discussed. 

11:00 - 11:30 Brian Berland - Ultra-Thin, Solid-State Batteries for Flexible Electronics

Ultra-Thin, Solid-State Batteries for Flexible Electronics

Brian Berland, Chief Science Officer, ITN Energy Systems, Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton CO 80127-4107

ITN Energy Systems has developed and demonstrated a promising new thin, flexible solid state lithium rechargeable battery (SSLB) for flexible electronics, smart wearables, and medical devices.  Combining ITN’s SSLB technology with a novel, ultra-thin flexible ceramic solves the capacity and packaging issues that have thus far limited the thin film battery technology to limited niche markets. With a capacity greater than 20 mAh in a thickness less than 250 microns, including hermetic packaging, the new SSLB enables energy density greater than 1,000 Wh/l while maintaining the long recognized benefits of enhanced safety and durability provided by the all solid state chemistry. Results are also presented for a new Flexible Integrated Power Pack (FIPP) that add in-field solar recharging by combing the SSLB with high efficiency CdTe solar cells. The new SSLB and FIPP products support operation across a wide range of duty cycles including high current pulses required for many wireless, display, and medical device applications. Results are presented for the battery and FIPP performance, including environmental and safety compliance testing. 

Dr. Berland serves as the Chief Science Officer for ITN Energy Systems. In this role, he directs technology and business development activities with a focus on moving technologies from the lab to commercialization. Over the last twenty years, he has led research and development activities in energy generation and storage materials, including those for flexible electronics. Prior to joining ITN, Dr. Berland was a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Colorado in the labs of Professor Steven George, a world leader in ALD chemistry. He holds a BS in Chemistry from Carleton College and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Colorado.

11:30-1:30 pm Lunch
13:30 - 14:00 Joseph Berry - Perovskite Solar Cells

Perovskite Solar Cells

Joseph Berry, National Renewal Energy Laboratories, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401

Photovoltaic devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite absorbers have reached outstanding performance over the past few years, surpassing power conversion efficiency of over 25% for single junction and present multiple paths to tandems with efficiencies beyond 30%.  This talk will discuss recent progress and challenges in hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) with an emphasis on the role of materials integration challenges needed to enable device performance, tandem processing and stability.  Specifically, this talk will highlight recent progress at NREL, the challenges of stability and tandems based on HPSC devices, as well as work to develop scalable HPSCs approaches for these systems. Details of material formation, the resulting interfaces and the role of processing in creating efficient device stacks, critical to high-volume manufacturing will be touched upon.  Our studies at NREL indicate formation dynamics for the active layer and interface to the contacts directly impacts the ability to create efficient stable devices and enable tandems from common (i.e. nonorthogonal) solvents.  Advanced concepts to improve low and wide bandgap HPSC systems critical to enabling tandems will also be presented. Data on the optoelectronic material and system properties as characterized by an array of analytical tools including time resolved spectroscopy, structural studies and device level evaluation will be presented to validate the technological relevance of advances and suggest overarching themes for research directions.

14:00 - 14:30 Robert K .Grubbs - Modern Concepts in Computer Memory and Storage Operation

Modern Concepts in Computer Memory and Storage Operation

Dr. Robert K. Grubbs, Micron Technology 

32 level 3D NAND storage cell stack

Computer memory and storage have become an almost invisible and integral part of the modern human experience as the world becomes more electronically connected.  The growing demands for computer storage and memory can be attributed to a number of factors including:  cell phones, electronic commerce, social media, corporate and government surveillance efforts, artificial intelligence, self-driving cars and big data; all of which require ever increasing amounts of electronic processing. These demands continue to push the electronic memory and storage industry to unprecedented levels of sophistication, design and reliability. The ability of modern semiconductor processing techniques to construct three dimensional storage and memory modules has enabled massive storage densities that are pushing the limits of present manufacturing techniques. 

Computer storage/memory fabrication techniques differ from traditional CMOS processing flows in that high temperatures are required for activating doped gate regions. All subsequent steps in CMOS flow (and subsequent memory array steps) are then required to have temperatures below this high temperature anneal. Additionally, CMOS active areas are typically planer in nature and are still are constrained by the surrounding silicon real estate.  Modern memory and storage devices take advantage of the 3rd dimension. Today’s storage/memory processing techniques for fabrication are challenged not only by enabling true three dimensional stacks of memory cells, but also by the temperature limitations of the materials utilized to fabricate those 3D structures.

In the following talk I will cover the differences between computer storage and memory and explain the underlying the electronic mechanism of how computer memory and storage work. Basic operation of DRAM, NAND and the novel 3D CrosspointTM memory will be presented. Challenges to 3D scaling, device shrink and temperature constraints will be discussed. 

14:30 - 15:00 Daniel Higgs - Tons per day Production of ALD-Coated Powders for Batteries and other Markets

Tons per day Production of ALD-Coated Powders for Batteries and other Markets

Daniel Higgs, ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, CO 80020

ALD has typically been labelled as expensive and slow. Recent advances in continuous processing of ALD-coated powders enable tons per day of production at costs on the order of $/kg. With lower costs comes wider market adoption.

Lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and distributed energy storage are driving today’s growth in the battery energy storage market. Longer term, grid-scale batteries will generate a large impact too. Overall, the dramatic changes and expansion of the battery industry are creating huge new materials markets. Every major chemical and advanced materials company in the world is attracted to this opportunity.

However, for new devices like EVs to take meaningful market share, the materials for electrodes, electrolytes, and other battery components need to be engineered at the nanometer, or even atomic, scale. It is this demand for engineering new materials that improve energy storage, safety, and power management metrics, combined with the desired cost stack of inputs to the final battery price, that has a big impact on ALD Nano’s business.

The key for success in to enable the new battery materials with atomic layer deposition technologies that not only solve various technical challenges to reach performance metrics, but can also scale at very low cost. This talk will discuss high throughput production of ALD onto powders for various industries including cathode active materials for batteries and other ALD-coated powders.

Board Members 2019

  • Chair:                       Andrew Cavanagh, University of Colorado
  • Chair Elect:              Steve Harvey, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Past Chair:               Michael Simmons, Intellivation LLC
  • Secretary:                Lorelle Mansfield, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Treasurer:                Rosine Ribelin, Ascent Solar

Executive Committee Members

Grant Armstrong, Carberry Technologies (ret.)
James Burst, Ball Aerospace
Mike Dearmond, MANTIS Deposition and Sigma Surface Science
Tim Gessert, University of Illinois, Gessert Consulting, LLC
Rudi Koetter, VaporTech
Tim Ohno, Colorado School of Mines
Neil Peacock, Pine Place Consulting
Svitlana Pylypenko,  Colorado School of Mines
Sarah Williams, Sputtering Components Inc

The Rocky Mountain Chapter of AVS covers Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and Utah.

Our chapter is comprised of members who come from academia, national laboratories and industry.

RMCAVS Annual Activities

Each year our chapter has an active vendor show, symposium and short course program in September. We participate in educational outreach through the Colorado Association of Science Teachers (CAST) to provide monetary awards to outstanding physical science teachers at the elementary, middle and high school levels. The Chapter sponsors one teacher each year to attend the Science Educators Workshop at the International AVS Symposium.

AVS Logo

We are always interested in expanding our membership and finding candidates who would like to be more involved. If you are interested in serving in a chapter leadership position or participating in one or more of our activities please contact us. www.avs.org/Chapters/Rocky-Mtn

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